When Policy Fails: How the Buck Was Passed When Kuwait Was Invaded

A paper by Bernard Roshco, spring 1992 fellow, analyzes the failures of the Bush administration’s policies toward Iraq prior to the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, and the failings of the press in reporting on them. Roshco explores numerous questions….

Two Commanders-in-Chief: Free Expression’s Most Severe Test

A paper by Betty Houchin Winfield, spring 1991 fellow, examines free speech and press freedom in the U.S. during wartime. If wartime governments are more autocratic, writes Winfield, then it is assumed that presidents will take a more authoritative stance…

The Nixon Memo

This paper by Marvin Kalb, Edward R. Murrow Professor of Practice Emeritus, was first presented as the keynote address at the Shorenstein Center’s fifth anniversary celebration. He discussed President Nixon’s complicated relationship with the press, focusing on a memo Nixon…

Turmoil at Tiananmen: A Study of U.S. Press Coverage of the Beijing Spring of 1989

This report by the Shorenstein Center explores the U.S. media coverage of the 1989 Beijing Spring. Although the U.S. was not directly involved in the events that took place, media coverage made Americans deeply involved in them. Among the “firsts”…

The Church, the Press, and Abortion: Catholic Leadership and Public Communication

A paper by Michael A. Russo, fall 1990 fellow, addresses the interrelationship between the Catholic Church and the news media in the U.S. abortion debate. Russo tells the story of three Catholic Bishops and how they frame their moral teachings…

Notes for the Next Epidemic, Part One: Lessons from News Coverage of AIDS

A paper by Timothy Cook, fall 1988 fellow, evaluates press coverage of the AIDS epidemic, and argues that many standard journalistic practices contributed to poor coverage of the issue, and may have led to slow policy responses. Cook cites several…

The Media in Europe After 1992: A Case Study of La Repubblica

A paper by Sylvia Poggioli, fall 1990 fellow, focuses on media consolidation in Italy in the early 1990s. For most of its history the Italian press was a “politically-subsidized” institution, writes Poggioli, with Italian newspapers often representing political parties or…

The Russian and Soviet Press: A Long Journey from Suppression to Freedom via Suppression and Glasnost

A paper by Alexander Merkushev, fall 1990 fellow, traces the history of press freedom in Russia from the rule of the Czars in the 17th century to the end of the Cold War under Gorbachev. Merkushev details how the Russian…

Lies in Ink, Truth in Blood: The Role and Impact of the Chinese Media During the Beijing Spring of ‘89

A paper by Linda Jakobson, spring 1990 fellow, focuses on Chinese press coverage of the student-led Tiananmen Square protests in 1989. For this paper, Jakobson interviewed dozens of Chinese journalists, scholars and other observers, read and watched Chinese press coverage,…

Window to the West: How Television from the Federal Republic Influenced Events in East Germany

A paper by Dieter Buhl, spring 1990 fellow, examines how television from West Germany influenced political developments in East Germany in the 1980s. Buhl’s study suggests that television functioned on at least two levels leading up to the fall of…